Monday, June 29, 2009

"I copy the works of God." & ...the back of a historic painting, high resolution photographs

Clearly the off-set clips, used to secure the stretcher to the frame, are not original... nor are the other pieces of hardware. I'm not sure when the original hardware was discarded, but most likely a few years ago when the portrait was taken in for repairs to the ornamentation on the front of the (original) frame, slightly damaged when my mom propped it up against the wall during an interior paint job and it fell on its face! This early canvas would be linen, as cotton canvases came into use in the early 20th century. Linen canvas is a higher quality material than cotton, is sturdy and strong and particularly suitable for the use of oil paint. It would be of European origin. Gilbert Stuart also used mahogany panels, but was "frequently annoyed to find that a picture he had taken great pains to paint was ruined by the splitting of the panel." (George Mason p 59).

digital, high resolution photography using a Nikon D90 camera
George Mason quoting Jane Stuart; "In his draperies he was exceedingly careless, but he amused himself at times by painting lace, showing with a few bold touches of his pencil how easy it is to produce an effect when one understands what he is about. But if any one of his intimate friends took him to task for carelessness in rubbing in the accessories in a portrait, he at once replied: 'I copy the works of God, and leave clothes to tailors and mantua-makers.' "

more from Jane Stuart; "In his work there is no appearance of labor, but everything that he did showed force and energy--so long as he kept to the head. When that was completed his enthusiasm seems to have abated. With some notable exceptions, the other parts of his pictures were painted but indifferently; but if he particularly fancied the subject, or the sitter was one in whom he took more than his usual interest, he worked with the greatest care to the end."

Friday, June 26, 2009

a great musical artist changes direction


The tears welled up... i scrambled up into the attic... brought down albums that have been stashed for years...
...they are more precious now.
from "How Jackson Did It" W. St. Journal July 1 by Jim Fusilli
"Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough" the album opener [Off the Wall] composed by Jackson, is set up by the syncopated percussion that Jackson, his sister Janet and brother Randy played on a casaba, cowbell and glass bottle and had recorded for the demo version. Suddenly, Jackson screams and the orchestra explodes: Sweeping strings; punchy horns; bass, drums and handclaps form the foundation under Jackson's vocal. Single notes plucked on electric quitar fold into the Jacksons' percussion, creating a signature sound for the singer."
Think of Mr. Jackson onstage, moonwalking, silver glove glittering, spotlight reflecting off his sunglasses, stardust twinkling amid the curls of his hair. Think of his incomparable intensity as he sang and danced. Listen, even if only in your mind, to the music he made with his brothers or as an enormously successful solo artist. Don't let anything conflict with your memory of his great gifts--and the joy he brought to us for most of his life and ours as well.
from "An Appreication" W. St. Journal June 26 by Jim Fusilli

Thursday, June 25, 2009

"...he began to awaken it into life..." ~ How many sittings did Stuart normally require to complete a portrait?

Jane Stuart, daughter of Gilbert, as quoted by George Mason:

"As Stuart was quick to read the character of a sitter, so had he a clear insight into the color of his complexion, and never was he known to fail in this particular...He commenced a portrait by drawing the head and features, and then he sketched in the general tone of the complexion; for this he seldom required more than four or five sittings, and frequently it was done in three sittings. The picture was never touched except when the sitter was in the chair. At the second sitting he introduced transparent flesh-tints, at the third he began to awaken it into life and give it expression, and then the individuality of the sitter came out. This was always done quickly."

Jane was a talented artist herself, it could be presumed she assisted her father in finishing more than a few paintings. Having assistants finish the paintings was not at all unusual. Below is an example of one which is known to have been finished by Jane.

from Lawrence Park:
Oliver H. Perry was a son of Christoper Raymond Perry of South Kensington, RI, by his wife Sarah Wallace Alexander. He became a midshipman in 1799; lieutenant in 1807, after serving in the Tripolitan War; and master-commander in 1812. In 1813 he was ordered to Lake Ontario, and while in command of the squadron on Lake Erie, he attacked the British fleet and gained a complete victory. For this service he was promoted to captain and received a medal and the thanks of Congress. In 1815 he commanded the 'Java' in Commodore Decatur's sqadron in the Mediterranean. In 1819 he sailed for the West Indies, where he died of yellow fever.

In 1818 the Rhode Island legislature commissioned Gilbert Stuart to paint a full-length portrait of naval officer. Perry sat for this portrait just before leaving for the West Indies. The full length portrait was never finished (who knows what minor altercation/irritation prevented its completion), Gilbert only completed the face, the rest was finished by 16-year-old Jane after his death.

Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry (1758-1819) by Gilbert Stuart 1818 and completed by Jane Stuart;
Toledo Museum of Art

Tuesday, June 23, 2009

What is a COAT OF ARMS? an introduction... & the Cory coat of arms

This is a digression from the life and times of GS, but an interesting one. Now we delve back into the Middle Ages in Europe, to a time when knights were recognized by the colorful insignia on their armor, and even later to when they wore their Coat of Arms with pride at tournaments; by 1400 A.D., the bearing of a coat of arms had become a prerequisite to participation in a tournament—those colorful and exciting times where men proved their valor and believed in the code of chivalry. Knights promised to defend the weak, be courteous to all women, be loyal to their king, and serve God at all times..... they were the upper class and a coat of arms also became a mark of noble status.
these would have the knight's emblem or family seal on them

A leather-covered drawing and description (both below) were passed down to me, which I put into a drawer and only pulled out to investigate a couple of weeks ago, when I began to write about Dr. Ben Cory in this blog, explaining how his son married Carrie Martin who brought the Portrait to Ca.
Hey, turns out there is a "coronet" in my family's coat of arms, pretty cool stuff! Now this is why I have always been fascinated by all things noble or royal... could it be genetic?!!!

The drawing & description were handed down to me, but when/where these originated, I don’t know. But the description was typewritten, the paper is yellowed with age.
In the last few posts, Dr. Ben Cory was introduced, his ancestry was briefly mentioned; ie the branch of the Cory family stemming from John Cory of Southold born in 1611 in England... In the last post, I showed the Cory coat of arms. I didn't know what it meant! Thanks to the internet, I quickly learned the rudiments, which I will share here. The motto (in Latin) means "hold with a firm hand." I suppose that meant... ...don't show any weakness when swinging the sword!
NOTE; the griffin is sitting in a CORONET!

The (typewritten) Description


“Sable” (black) on a chevron between three griffins’ heads (erased, d’or) [heads are not cleanly cut but jagged, yellow], three estoiles or stars “gu” (red)
The shield, wreath, motto scroll, motto and name are in “sable”. The chevron and griffin heads are “d’or”, the three estoiles are “gu.”

Out of a ducal coronet—a griffin’s head between two wings, and each wing charged with three estoiles in pale “gules” (pale red.)

In the crest the griffin’s head and wings are a heavy yellow, the ducal coronet (on which the griffin’s head rests) shows a little darker, the outlines show a little heavier. The shading on the wings should distinctly show or mark feathers in wings.

"Forti Tene Manu"

...everything, color, lines, depictions, are all symbolic...

Gules (Red) –warrior, military strength, magnanimity
Or (Gold) -generosity and elevation of the mind
Sable (Black) - constancy, sometimes grief
Represents the roof of a house - signifies protection, faithful service
(In the early days of heraldry, very simple bold rectilinear shapes were painted on shields. These could be easily recognized at a long distance and could be easily remembered. They therefore served the main purpose of heraldry—identification.)
GRIFFIN- (head, wings, and talons of an eagle with the body of a lion); Valour and death-defying bravery; vigilance
STAR (estoiles) – divine quality; noble person; superiority
CROWN (Coronet) - ducal coronet, bearer’s rank
VOL (wings) - Swiftness, protection, celebrity

As its use in jousting became obsolete, coats of arms remained popular for visually identifying a person in other ways — impressed in sealing wax on documents, carved on family tombs, or flown as a banner on country homes.

When I first started checking into my ancestry, just learning about the doctor was challenging! The family did not talk much about “family”, and thus I do not have a multitude of colorful stories to relate---how sad! How I would have loved to hear about how my ancestors....saved damsels in distress!

photo courtesy of the Cory Family Society

Saturday, June 20, 2009

News Alert re: Gilbert Stuart! & Shaver Lake California, June 2009

News Alert re: Gibby
Two books are being written... and hopefully will be published soon... on our favorite artist. Dorinda Evans has just finished the first draft of her book on Gilbert Stuart, and another is being written by Jane Kamensky, Professor of History, Brandeis University. "Kamensky will begin a new project on the life and times of the artist Gilbert Stuart, a New England-born provincial who became the early republic’s most renowned celebrity portraitist. Connecting Stuart to the visual cultures of the seven Atlantic cities in which he studied and worked, the book will explore the relationships among art, nation, and commerce in the early nineteenth century. "
Shaver Lake California, June 2009

Lily is second from the right, her cousin Katie is behind her.
the 'kids'; bottom row Helen in the middle is friend of Lily, back row Juliane second from left is friend of Patrick, and Justin second from right is friend of Katie


Wednesday, June 10, 2009

"I wish he would visit to me and give me his history in the matter of that I may adopt a different plan of attack..." and ...whiskers.

The Cory Coat of Arms

In the previous post, we learned about Dr. Ben Cory, who traversed the plains over the summer of 1847. Here is a letter from the good doctor as a young man in his early twenties, dreaming about courtship and marriage, before he had even made up his mind to make such an adventure. To refresh the memory, his son Lewis Lincoln Cory born in San Jose California in 1861, married Carrie Martin of New Jersey; her parents, then elder sister Emma (no children), were in possession of the Gilbert Stuart portrait of Samuel Meeker.
The letter begins with Ben describing to his cousin Fanny the death of his mother (my ggg-grandmother Elizabeth (Stayge) Cory). I do not know the cause of her death, but whatever it was, it was extremely painful.

Nov 30, 1846

You have ample cause to cross me from your list of relatives and friends. I have shamefully abused your generous friendship in not having written to you for so long a time. Many things have absorbed my attention during the last few months so exclusively that I have neglected many an absent friend. But by neglecting to write to you, I only have been the loser—it is my own loss and not yours. Be assured that it was from no want of respect for you that I have passed you by so long. I ask your pardon, I have the present consciousness that you grant it. You have by this time received the notice of my mother’s death. She departed from her sufferrings on the 18th of last month. Although I could not refrain from the shedding of bitter tears, I still feel an abiding grief. Yet was I glad when she ceased to live. Her pain was so excessive that I would have been her greatest enemy had I wished her to stay. I have seen all kinds of diseases-have witnessed all manner of surgical operations performed—have walked through the gloomy wards of several Hospitals—young as I am. I have seen men, women, and children writhing under the sting of pain, hundreds of times, and yet never in all my life have I seen a poor mortal afflicted with such mountain agonies as was my mother. And she was resigned to her unhappy lot no person could be more so. She was a Christian—no person could possibly be a better. I have heard her scream with agony and shout with joy almost in the same breath. While her coutnenace was all distored with pain, she would say ‘The lord’s will be done’-‘not my will but thine’.-‘when wilt thou take me to thyself’ ‘Lord Jesus I wait thine own time’ ‘come quickly if consistent with thy will’ ‘oh how can I bear this pain. I am falling to peaces, I am a nuisance to myself, but Jesus thou will not forsake me.’ She had her senses so long as she could speak. She became speechless Sunday morning about 7 o’clock and died at seven at night—her eyes were fixed all day, I did not notice anything. The last word she said was, ‘Thank the Lord thank Jesus’- I heard her speak—as she spoke she rubbed her almost palsied hands togther and looked upward with an anxious, peculiar look. My mother, your Aunt Eliza is gone—gone to Heaven—where she hovers around the throne of God—the purest among the angelic host—

I am quite lonesome. Jackson is in Brown Co with Adeline—nobody here but Father, Manning + an old illiterate housekeeper. If it was not that I am mostly busy in my profession, I could not content myself here any longer. There are seven doctors here, but I am confident that I do more practice than any of them, not excepting my Father—the ‘foolish’ people seem to have confidence in me. We will book about 3000 dollars this year but on account of the poor pay, changeable nature of the climate, small fees and a few other things, it is my intention to remove to Mississippi or Louisiana next spring. Father’s health is rather poor every winter, and it would be well for him to reside in the South during the winter—which is an additional motive for me to remove, so that I can have a home for him. Nothing could give me greater pleasure than to visit Lima before I leave this part of the country—but I fear it is among the impossibilities. I fear I shall never be permitted to see you again. I may die in the South the first year—at all events is any intention of locating permanently and you know that a man in my business must be fettered to one spot. Alas! The future is mostly portentious to me: I frequently look into its misty vista with forboding. Occasionally however hope cheers me and I straitway build airy castles!

You will call me a gloomy old batchelor, I expect, on account of the last few lines of last evening. Just as you please—you must have your own way. But I slept well last night and awoke in a more jolly mood. Here I am in the office, seated in the big admin chair, a good fire in the stove, an excellent segar in the ‘sinister’ angle of my mouth, gorgeous clouds of sweet scented smoke curling above my head—the personification of contentment himself. I am not an old bachelor now am I? You must permit me to talk to you through the smoke, for you know it makes me biting mad to take my slippers from me. Who is that doctor to whom you have given your sympathies? What kind of a bargain did you make with him? Did you make an equal exchange of hearts? If you did, you got cheated I bet. Or did you give only half of your heart for all of his? In that case it may be an equitable trade. Or did you only get half of his for all of yours? In this instance I would put him down as a rascally cheat, and he ought to live in the penitentiary. Come now, tell me all about it. If it was possible for the two hearts to be knotted together this winter. I would be there to help tie if at all hazzards. Oh! you might as well quit that unnecessary blushing and pouting and stammering for I believe all the fair lady told me in the paper you sent me—and you need not deny you said she is a lady that never falsifies. I would have believed that however in the present case even if you had told me that she was a ****? of falsehoods. Blushing yet? Why Fanny the blood mounting as it did to your cheeks, is a telltale. The doctor to whom the paper referred is a fortunate chap—just gone after his diploma and expects to get married as soon as he comes back (next April, is it?) I am one of the minority class of doctors (unfortunately) two years a doctor not even engaged yet. I wish some fine lady would look upon me with compassion—I am getting old too—24 last month—two dozen years old! a quarter of a century old! I [am] really afraid that nobody but a wizzard will have me, if I get much older before entering into our agreement! Cousin James is not married I suppose. I wish he would visit to me and give me his history in the matter of courtships so that I may adopt a different plan of attack. Come James, trim up your whiskers, shake your hairy locks and enter the lists with renewed vigor and it is possible you may succeed in getting a charming wife after all, and end your days in joyous felicity.

Last spring I enjoyed myself very much. Grandfather looks and is quite feeble. Grandmother is quite robust. I read a letter a week ago from Uncle Joseph. They are all in usual health. Grandmother wove 20yds of cloth, which proves that she is still robust. Aunt Abby looks very much like Fanny Cory of Lima, especially when she laughs. Father expects to visit Jersey next spring—I think he will go. We are all of us well. Father’s health is better than it usually is this season of the year—he however coughs some. He says that some of you must write to him immediately. Manning received your letter short time since says he will answer it soon. I thank you for the paper you sent me and the remarks in it—do so again. I also feel grateful for the lines which the anonymous lady penned me, and will take the liberty of acknowledging them in a separate note. But you & herself also are “right mean” in withholding her name! I never rec’d that pretty thing which you said you had sent me, looked for it anxiously—some pilfering bull has stolen it I suppose—what was it about? don’t be frightened at this sheet. It has rained hard all day. Really. I had almost forgotten to tell (an important item) you that I have in process of cultivation a huge, enormous pair of-of-of-of-of -of whiskers—oh! its a fact! It might require a telescope of 1000 magnifying powers to notice the distance from one shoot to another but what of that—Tell uncle Samuel to send on some of the whisker salve he used to use if he has not used it all up! Give my love to all my relatives and reserve a few for yourself—

your cousin Ben Cory

Saturday, June 6, 2009

Why, how did the Gilbert Stuart portrait of Samuel Meeker come to California; the uncommon circumstances!

Westward Ho!!
In the previous post we learned about my grandfather Pops, born to Carrie and Lewis Cory. Carrie was born to the Martin family of the Westfields, NJ and it was through Carrie that the portrait made its way west; she married Lewis Lincoln Cory, born in 1861 in San Jose, Ca to Sarah (Braly) Cory and Dr. Benjamin Cory, pictured above.

The story of Dr. Benjamin Cory
Dr. Ben Cory is known as the first horse and buggy doctor in San Jose, California. This branch of the Cory family stems from John Cory of Southold born in 1611 in England, eventually John Cory II, John Cory III, Joseph etc settled in New Jersey. Dr. Ben’s father Dr. James Manning Cory went “west” to Ohio, where he established his medical practice and raised a family of 7 children (not all reaching adulthood). Son Ben was born in Oxford OH in 1822. After receiving his medical credentials from the Medical College of Ohio, Ben dreamed of leaving. In a letter to his cousin Fanny, Nov 30. 1846, he wrote: “There are seven doctors here, but I am confident that I do more practice than any of them, not excepting my Father—the ‘foolish’ people seem to have confidence in me. We will book about 3000 dollars this year but on account of the poor pay, changeable nature of the climate, small fees and a few other things, it is my intention to remove to Mississippi or Louisiana next spring. Father’s health [Dr. James Manning Cory] is rather poor every winter, and it would be well for him to reside in the South during the winter—which is an aditional motive for me to remove, so that I can have a home for him.” Ben was only a young 23 years old when he received his M.D. in Cincinnati and only 25 when he set foot in California for the first time. Tales of the warmth and beauty, and not least opportunity, to be had in California clearly provided enough motivation for the young adventurer to set out for the west vs the south. He chose not to set up practice in San Francisco, as there were already too many doctors (two). This bold and adventurous spirit traversed the Plains by foot, with two companions, alongside a wagon loaded with food, ammunition, books and medicines, pulled by four oxen in the spring of 1847, before gold was even discovered. He opened up his practice in the dirt of the Plaza, in a tent in what was then only a Mexican pueblo. He eventually married, had eight living children, and made his permanent home in San Jose, residing in the house he built in 1864 at 435 South Second Street until the end of his days.

The image of the ‘shack’ (top above) is the earliest known photo of Dr. Ben Cory’s office in San Jose. The second image is of the Santa Clara County Hospital. Ben and his brother Andrew Jackson Cory (who arrived in Ca 10 years later and became the county’s chief medical officer in 1871) led the campaign to build this new county medical facility, both of these men recognizing the urgent need for services to the poor and indigent and the importance of charity health care in society.

Dr. Ben Cory age 70, in this family photo from 1892, and his wife Sarah Braly; to the right under the black arrows are my gt grandfather Lewis L. Cory and wife Carrie (how the portrait comes to Ca). The red dots show Lewis’ brother and sisters (children of the Doctor and his wife Sarah.) Sarah’s mother Susan (Hyde) Braly is the matron in the center of the photo. The Braly family also came across the plains in the same year 1847, and settled in Santa Clara county.

The photo is of downtown San Jose in the year 1906. Although the Doctor is by now deceased, one can see that cars are just beginning to arrive on the scene, there is no rhyme, reason or logic in the driving on the street. The main point here is that one must picture how, for decades, the good Doctor made his rounds, over hill and dale, in the beginning by horseback, and later in the luxury of a horse and buggy! (click on the photo to have a great view!)

My gt grandfather Lewis, father of Pops [see post before this one] and son of Dr. Ben, looked for opportunity in the up and coming area of Fresno. Before settling there, back east at Columbia Law School, he met his wife Carrie Martin. The circumstances of this meeting are not known to me, but I suspect these two families remained in close contact through the years (the Cory family being well-established in the Westfields). Carrie’s father Thomas, was a bookbinder in Rahway, New Jersey. Lewis and Carrie were married on 17 Oct 1882, in Rahway.

The good Doctor Ben, singer of hymns and providing services in exchange for eggs, chickens or gold dust, or for free, died in 1896.

Next: the whole letter from Nov 30 1846 from Ben to cousin Fanny;
Who is that doctor to whom you have given your sympathies? What kind of a bargain did you make with him? Did you make an equal exchange of hearts?

and a letter to his brother Andrew Jackson, from the gold mines.

Thursday, June 4, 2009

a striking resemblance, more than a mere coincidence?

Benjamin Hyde Cory (1896-1983) b. Fresno Ca, d. Menlo Park Ca
son of Carrie (Martin) & Lewis L. Cory
my grandfather, gg-grandson of Phebe Meeker, twin sister of the sitter Samuel Meeker

Note: the amazing resemblance in the shape of the chin, and particularly the mouth; the fullness of the lips, the dimple in the bottom lip, and slight lift in the upperlip under the left nostril.
What is also remarkable, is Stuart's ability to nail an almost photographic image...

Ben (1896-1983), 'Pops', was born in Fresno Ca to a family who attempted to establish east coast gentility in the heat of this inland farm town of Central California, which at one time had hopes to rival San Francisco in both size and culture. Pops was sent back east for his education at Groton, Princeton, and Harvard Law, and on vacations rather than making the difficult and lengthy trip back to Ca he would stay with the Jersey 'aunties', one of which (Emma), possessed the Meeker portrait (passed down from parents Thomas and Mary, see family tree below--NOTE, the Samuel Meeker in the portrait is the twin brother of Phebe Meeker, and not the father who is also a Samuel Meeker). Without children, the portrait passed from Emma to sister Carrie, my great grandmother. This is when (year unknown) the portrait was successfully transplanted from Princeton New Jersey to the sunny soils of California.
Carrie and Lewis (the first lawyer in Fresno, he argued in front of the US Supreme Court on Ca water issues) lived a life of richesse in a large Victorian house located in what is now downtown Fresno. The household staff included butler & cook (married), chauffeur ''Cooey' (lived above the garage), 2 gardeners, upstairs maid; fresh flowers were brought in every day. The 3 story house comprised the basement (washing & ironing room), first floor (foyer, living room, parlor, dining room, breakfast room, sewing room, large kitchen), second floor (bedrooms), and third floor (servants' quarters.) My mom remembers being mostly confined to eating in the breakfast room, and during formal dining, children were to be 'seen and not heard'. A veranda encircled the house, providing shade and breeze to the residents. In the foyer there were Asian artifacts, signalling international travels. One trip to China, according to family lore, was taken to separate Pop's sister Margaret from her infatuation with a baseball player when both were attending Stanford University. The Gilbert Stuart (by this time thought to be by Peale) portrait of Samuel Meeker most likely hung in the parlor. Many years later, when Pops moved in with my parents after the death of my grandmother Susie, he asked that mom should hang "the old gentleman". Thus we can deduce he did not know the name of the sitter, most likely not even his mother Carrie bothered to look at the family-tree book which accompanied the portrait, that Emma compiled (pictured below.) I know that Emma must have done the research in the book, for she mispelled the name 'Cory.' Without Emma's interest in ancestry, identification of the sitter would more than likely, surely, have been lost forever.
In any case, she however did mistakenly presume that the sitter was the father of Phebe, and not the brother. Without my interest in ancestry, the identity of the sitter would have been also lost! I have taken up from where Emma left off, I thank her gratefully for having compiled the family-tree book which filled in so many blanks, and have deepened the research into precisely who Samuel Meeker was.

Epilogue; after the deaths of Lewis and Carrie, Pop's sister Edith continued to live in the family Victorian, but later sold the house, which was torn down and replaced with commercial properties, and moved with all proceeds, belongings and furnishings to the neighboring farm town of Clovis. Upon her death, my mother inherited some silver and jewelry, and the Portrait. The rest went to, as Susie (my grandmother) derisively called the care-taker couple, THE OAKIES.

Tuesday, June 2, 2009

Dolly Madison's sister Anna & Gibby's nose

billowing drapery as background in Anna's portrait

In the last two posts we learned that First Lady Dolly Madison saved the Stuart portrait of George Washington; she escaped before the British captured her in the war of 1812, not only with the celebrated portrait but also with the founding documents of our country, including the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution that her husband, James Madison, had been responsible for writing.

Pictured above is the drapery in the Gilbert Stuart portrait of Anna Payne; eleven years younger than her sister Dolley, Anna Payne (1779–1832) sat for Stuart about the time of her marriage to Richard Cutts, congressman from Massachusetts. She and Stuart reportedly enjoyed her sittings and discussed his belief that the nose was the telling feature of the face. He then mischievously formed the billowing curtain behind her — (as you have by now figured out, a fixture in portraits of the time)—into a caricature of his own profile.

Anna Payne Cutts by Gilbert Stuart 1804
The White House

from George Mason p.140; “’On the day when I was sitting to him the second time,’ said Mr. Binney, ‘I said to Stuart, ‘What do you consider the most characteristic feature of the face? You have already shown me that the eyes are not; and we know from sculpture, in which the eyes are not; and we know from sculputre, in which the eyes are wanting, the same thing.’ Stuart just pressed the end of his pencil against the tip of his nose, distorting it oddly. ‘Ah, I see, I see,’ cried Mr. Binney."

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